Views: 0 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-08-26 Origin: Site
As the first two-dimensional material to be discovered, graphene has rapidly attracted worldwide attention and research interest since its inception in 2004.Although 15 years have passed, the research on graphene and related two-dimensional materials is still hot, and emerging research fields are constantly being developed.Under the background of the current new round of industrial upgrading and technological revolution, the new material industry will surely become the cornerstone and leader of the future development of high-tech industries, and will have a profound impact on the development of the global economy, technology, environment and other fields.China is a country with large graphite resources and one of the most active countries in graphene research and application development.
As a new carbon-based material, graphene has good optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. It has broad application prospects in the fields of electronic information, new materials, new energy, and biomedicine. It is becoming a global new technology and new industrial revolution. Focus.At present, more than 80 countries around the world have invested in the research and development of graphene materials, and the United States, Britain, South Korea, Japan, and Europe have even elevated graphene research to a national strategic level.This article will introduce the world's top five graphene research centers in the current research field and the top graphene research institutions in China.
1. Manchester National Graphene Institute
Graphene was invented at the University of Manchester. In 2010, physicists Andre Heim and Konstantin Novoselov of the University of Manchester won the Nobel Prize in Physics that year for their achievements in graphene research.As the birth country of graphene, the UK has seen the infinite development prospects of graphene, a super material.Aiming at a new round of industrial revolution, in 2011, the British government decided to build the National Graphene Institute (NGI) at the University of Manchester.In March 2015, NGI, which cost 61 million pounds, was officially established.
NGI is the current source of graphene-related research in the UK and even the world.The core mission of NGI is to continuously explore the frontier fields of two-dimensional (2D) material science and application, taking into account the industrialization and commercialization of graphene and two-dimensional materials.With NGI as the center, the Graphene Engineering Innovation Center (GEIC) and Henry Royce Research Institute undertake and develop NGI research results, and constantly explore new models of commercial application of 2D materials.Collaboration is key at the National Graphene Institute.More than 80 companies have partnered with the University of Manchester to work on graphene applications.
In 2019, NGI has published nearly 60 papers in total, including 5 papers in NS regular journals, 3 papers in Dazi journals, and about 19 papers in top journals such as Nature Communication and ACS series.Statistics show that nearly half of NGI's new top journals are related to 2D material heterojunctions, mainly reporting novel or anomalous electronic fluids and optoelectronic phenomena in 2D materials in heterostructures, focusing on fundamental physics.
2. Cambridge Graphene Research Centre
The Cambridge Graphene Centre (CGC), like Manchester NGI, is part of the UK Graphene Collaborative Innovation Group.CGC is positioned as an engineering innovation center. Its main task is to bridge academia and industry, promote the industrialization of graphene and 2D materials, and promote the marketization of applied scientific research results, with emphasis on 2D materials-related applications.
The main purpose of investing in CGC is to fill the gaps in two aspects: (1) For industrial production, research the pilot-scale process equipment system, test and optimize inkjet printing technology based on graphene, nanomaterials and other new 2D materials; (2) Facing the requirements for energy storage such as self-supply and wireless interconnection, research on intelligent integrated devices based on transparent and flexible bases.The use of graphene and other related materials to enable new flexible, energy-efficient electronic and optoelectronic devices is the core challenge of the above work.
In order to gradually overcome the above difficulties, CGC has deployed 2D materials related research from four general directions: (1) material growth, transfer and printing; (2) energy applications; (3) device interconnection; (4) sensor applications.
In 2019, Dr. Colm Durkan from the Nanoscience Center of Cambridge University proposed a simple and effective solution for removing PMMA residues on graphene surfaces in the journal Adv. Mater.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of graphene device fabrication.a) CVD-grown graphene spin-coated with bulk PMMA as a support layer on Cu foil.b) After transfer onto a silicon substrate and bulk PMMA removed, a graphene surface was left but with some polymer residues.c) After resist development after electron beam lithography for patterned graphene-metal contacts, more PMMA residues remain on the graphene surface.d) These residues are then trapped between the graphene and metal electrodes after metallization.e,f) After the two steps of (b) and (c), treating the samples in ionic solution as proposed in this work can effectively remove the residues on the graphene surface.
To understand the observations, it should be recognized that PMMA is hydrophobic, as is graphene.Therefore, PMMA strongly adheres to the graphene surface.PMMA has a carbon backbone with ester side chains.When exposed to low pH (as is the case with HCl), esters can hydrolyze to yield alcohols (which will disperse into solution) and fatty acids, which remain attached to the backbone.This acidic form of PMMA will be hydrophilic and thus i) have weaker interactions with the underlying graphene, and ii) will interact more strongly with water.The combination of the two results in slow dissolution of PMMA.As for the action of NaCl, different reactions may occur, including the chlorination of the methyl pendant groups of PMMA to produce methyl chloride, which is also highly polar and therefore water soluble.
3. Spanish Institute of Optoelectronics
The Institute of Photonic Science (ICFO) is a world-class research center focusing on optoelectronics research. It recruits high-end fundamental and applied research scientists in optoelectronics from all over the world. Promote the application of advanced optoelectronic technology.In view of the novel optoelectronic properties and rapid development of graphene and 2D materials, parallel to quantum and nanobiology, ICFO independently opens up a new field of graphene and 2D materials research, hoping to use 2D materials to replace traditional optoelectronic materials and solve the current problems faced by the optoelectronics field. Difficulties and challenges.Both basic science exploration and emerging application research are carried out. ICFO has established four major exploration and research directions in basic science and emerging applications.
In 2017, the Spanish Institute of Photonic Sciences produced a high-resolution graphene-quantum dot CMOS imaging sensor for the first time.In 2019, the above-mentioned research groups have published a total of 15 papers, including nearly 6 papers in the top journals of Nature, PRL, and ACS series. The hot topics of the papers are mainly in the fields of two-dimensional material nanoelectromechanical oscillators, magic-angle graphene and graphene optoelectronics.,
In terms of energy, ICFO aims to explore feasible application avenues for graphene in semi-transparent photovoltaic devices, and to develop renewable energy devices through the application of novel functional materials and nanostructures.
In terms of high-precision sensing, ICFO's research focuses on super-resolution mass spectrometers and opto-mechanical systems based on graphene nanoelectromechanical oscillators, and parallel development of graphene-based mid-infrared detectors, gas detectors, and biochemical applications for DNA, proteins, etc. sensor.
In terms of surface plasmon photonics, he mainly studies the electrical regulation and detection of graphene plasmons, and the optical modulation based on graphene plasmons.
In basic optics, he mainly studies nano-quantum optics, artificial graphene, ultrafast optics, and graphene nonlinear optics.
In terms of imaging system applications, ICFO mainly researches image sensors based on CMOS technology that can cover deep ultraviolet-visible light-infrared.
In terms of wearable applications, the main research is on flexible and translucent health detection systems, which can effectively detect multiple health parameters such as blood oxygen.
In terms of photodetectors, the research mainly focuses on ultra-broadband detectors based on broadband absorption and integrated detectors combining graphene, quantum dots and other 2D materials.
In terms of flexible sensors, he mainly studies flexible sensors enabled by graphene and other 2D materials, including optical sensors, RFID, biochemical sensors, gas sensors, flexible screens and antibacterial, super-lubricated surfaces, etc.
4. Advanced 2D Materials Research Center, National University of Singapore
In 2010, the National University of Singapore (NUS) announced that it would set up a new research centre, mainly focused on two-dimensional materials (like graphene).The so-called '2D Materials Center' (2MC) will receive $40 million in funding from the National Research Foundation over the next 10 years.
Similar to Manchester NGI and Cambridge CGC, The NUS Centre for Advanced 2D Materials (CA2DM) at the National University of Singapore is a new research centre set up with the help of the wave of 2D materials development. , characterization, theoretical modeling and applications, etc. to explore and follow up the revolutionary technologies brought by 2D materials.
Therefore, CA2DM is divided into four large research groups: (1) graphene group; (2) other 2D material group; (3) 2D device combination; (4) theoretical group.CA2DM is currently the largest comprehensive research center for 2D materials in Singapore, and is at the forefront of Asian countries in basic scientific research and industrial applications based on 2D materials.
In 2019, CA2DM has published a total of 96 papers, 1 in the main journal of Nature, nearly 40 in top journals such as NS sub-journals, Advanced Materails, Advanced Energy Materials, Nano Energy, and ACS series, covering almost all of the above research directions.
5. Samsung Institute of Technology, South Korea
The development of Korea's graphene industry is closely integrated with production, education and research, and the development in basic research and industrialization is relatively balanced. Especially at the level of industrial enterprises, SAIT has invested a lot of R&D efforts to ensure that graphene can be used in flexible displays, touch screens and chips. international leadership in the field.
South Korea's Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) is affiliated to the Samsung Group's exploration and development business cluster. Research leading or original technologies for new markets; (2) Promote technological integration and innovation; (3) Promote the development of nanotechnology; (4) Research disruptive technologies.
Graphene has great potential to enhance and transform several industries in the next 10 years, and it is also expected to create a large number of new jobs in Europe and globally.Therefore, it is very important to examine which specific industrial fields graphene is more important from a technical point of view.
One of the top graphene research institutions in China - Beijing Graphene Research Institute
Beijing Graphene Research Institute (BGI) is a joint venture established in 2016 by Peking University, China National Building Materials Group, China Baoan Group and other industry leading enterprises with the support of the Beijing Municipal Government, focusing on the core technology research and development of graphene industry, high-end research and development agency At the same time, BGI Technology Co., Ltd. was established as the carrier of achievement transformation and industrialization promotion of Beijing Graphene Research Institute.The first dean is the internationally renowned nanocarbon material expert, Academician Liu Zhongfan of Peking University, and the Nobel Prize winner, Professor Konstantin Novoselov of the University of Manchester, is invited as the honorary dean.
Beijing Graphene Research Institute connects industrial development and major national needs, lays out the core key technologies of the graphene industry, implements a new service model for high-end R&D and foundry, cultivates a number of graphene killer applications, and incubates a group of graphene high-tech enterprise groups , to cultivate hundreds of billions of graphene industry clusters and build the core competitiveness of my country's graphene industry.
It is the source of the core technology leading the graphene industry, the high-tech industry innovation mechanism and innovation culture demonstration area, the global graphene high-end talent gathering place, the graphene industry resource synergistic aggregate and the innovation and entrepreneurship highland.
At present, the graphene materials prepared are far from ideal, so what I have often said recently is that today's graphene materials are not equivalent to future graphene materials, and the current uses of graphene may not even be very useful. May not be the core of future industries.For us, we need to make it to the extreme in order to form an industry, and preparation determines the future. The key is whether we can make really good graphene materials.
Regarding the future graphene industry, it will be based on the killer application of graphene materials, not as a panacea additive.The domestic market mainly focuses on these products, including clothing, coatings, composite materials, adsorption, lubrication products, graphene lithium batteries, smart bracelets, graphene mobile phone touch screens, etc. Connected sensors, wearables and health management, data communications, energy technology, composites, and more.
Regarding the status quo of China's graphene material industry, there is a serious tendency to seek quick success and instant benefits, lack of attention to the core technology of the future graphene industry, a large number of patents, but insufficient innovation ability and lack of real core intellectual property rights.In addition, the hype in the capital market is mixed up, the industrial park is built blindly, and the phenomenon of simple repetition is serious.Testing standards have not yet been established, market products are mixed, and funding is scattered and seriously insufficient.The government should clarify its decision-making position, focus on the layout of the core technologies of the graphene industry in the future, and hand over low-end products to the market and enterprises.
According to the research of Cambridge IP, a British patent consulting firm, as of May 2014, the number of patents applied for graphene in the world was 11,372, with Asia accounting for 3,060, while Europe and the United Kingdom had only 361 and 41 respectively, clearly lagging behind.The number of patents in the graphene field needs to be looked at carefully.
At present, China and South Korea have applied for a large number of patents in the field of graphene, and the European Patent Office is very picky in granting patents, so the number of patent applications filed in Europe is relatively small.The gap in the number of patents is not an indicator that Europe is lagging behind in this technology.
In terms of the absolute number of patents, it is undeniable that Europe is lagging behind, but its quality is not inferior to other countries.Many Chinese patents are not international; South Korea has dozens of patents in a certain field, while European patents cover a wide range of research fields.Europe and the UK do need more patents and are working towards it, but the number of patents needs to be looked at more carefully.